Brucellosis is an infectious zoonotic bacterial disease caused by a member of the genus Brucella. The disease affects both animals and human beings resulting in a serious economic loss in the animal production sector and deterioration of public health. Bovine brucellosis is highly prevalent and has significant economic and zoonotic implications for the rural communities in consequence of their traditional lifestyles, feeding habits, and disease patterns. The possible sources of infections include all infected tissues, aborted fetuses, vaginal discharges, and potentially contaminated materials. The nature of the pathogenesis of the diseases lies in the presence of the bacteria in the cells and employing various methods to survive in the phagocytic cells. The disease can be transmitted from an infected host to susceptible animals in direct and indirect contact. Various methods are employed for the diagnosis of brucellosis including microscopic examination, culture methods, serological and molecular biology. The public health importance of brucellosis is much related to the infected animal species from which human transmission occurs. The economic importance of brucellosis depends upon the species of animal affected. It can cause considerable losses in cattle as a result of abortion and a reduction in milk yield. The most rational approach for control of Brucella abortus infection is by vaccinating young female animals. To deal with diseases like brucellosis, the public in general and high-risk groups, in particular, should be made aware of the zoonotic and economic importance of brucellosis through veterinary extension education.