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Abstract

An important milestone in quantum physics was reached by the publication of the Relativistic Quantum Mechanical Dirac Equation in 1928. However, the Dirac equation represents a 1-Dimensional quantum mechanical equation which is unable to describe the 4-Dimensional Physical Reality.

In this article, the 4-Dimensional Relativistic Quantum Mechanical Dirac Equation expressed in the vector probability functions and the complex conjugated vector probability function will be discussed. To realize this, the classical boundaries of physics has to be changed. It is necessary to go back in time more than 200 years ago before the Dirac Equation had been published.

Isaac Newton who published in 1687 in the “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica” a Universal Fundamental Principle in Physics was in Harmony with Science and Religion. Newton found the concept of “Universal Equilibrium” which he mentioned in his famous third equation, Action = Reaction. This article presents a New Kind of Physics based on this Universal Fundamental Concept in Physics which results in a New Approach in Quantum Physics and General Relativity.

The physical concept of quantum mechanical probability waves has been originated during the famous 5th Solvay Conference in 1927. During that period there were several circumstances that came together and made it possible to create a unique idea of material waves being complex (partly real and partly imaginary) and describing the probability of the appearance of a physical object (elementary particle). The idea of complex probability waves was new in the beginning of the 20th century. Since then the New Concept has been protected carefully within the Copenhagen Interpretation.   When Schrödinger published his well-known material wave equation in 1926, he found spherical and elliptical solutions for the presence of the electron within the atom. The first idea of the material waves in Schrödinger's wave equation was the concept of confined Electromagnetic Waves. But according to Maxwell, this was impossible. According to Maxwell's equations, Electromagnetic Waves can only propagate along straight lines and it is impossible that Light (Electromagnetic Waves) could confine with the surface of a sphere or an ellipse. For that reason, these material waves in Schrödinger's wave equation could only be of a different origin than Electromagnetic Waves. Niels Bohr introduced the concept of “Probability Waves” as the origin of the material waves in Schrödinger’s wave equation. And defined the New Concept that the electron was still a particle but the physical presence of the electron in the Atom was equally divided by a spherical probability function.

In the New Theory, it will be demonstrated that because of a mistake in the Maxwell Equations, in 1927 Confined Electromagnetic waves could not be considered to be the material waves expressed in Schrödinger's wave equation. The New Theory presents a new equation describing electromagnetic field configurations which are also solutions of the Schrodinger's wave equation and the relativistic quantum mechanical Dirac Equation and carry mass, electric charge, and magnetic spin at discrete values.

How to Cite

Vegt, W. (2020). 4-Dimensional Relativistic Quantum Mechanical Equilibrium in Gravitational-Electromagnetic Confinements: A Mathematical Framework in Quantum Physics for the quantization of mass, electric charge and magnetic spin. International Science Review, 1(2), 34-61. https://doi.org/10.47285/isr.v1i2.59

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