The "System of Rice Intensification"(SRI) represents a sustainable alternative to improve household yields and incomes. This study aimed to evaluate the yields and the profitability of the SRI and the Traditional Practices (TP) in Ziguinchor district, Senegal. A directed sampling based on criteria for selecting the system used and the cultivated varieties common to both systems was applied to collect the yield parameters and yields of paddy rice. Thus, 18 producers in the Badiate, Essyl, and Fanda sites were selected, nine per system and four 1 m2 yield squares were installed in each selected producer plot. A total of 72 yield squares, 36 per system, were installed, and an individual questionnaire was randomly administered to 55 producers using at least one of the systems to collect data on rice production and costs. The yield parameters including the number of fertile tillers per m2, the number of spikes, the weight of the 1000 grains are significantly higher (p<0.05) in the SRI including yield compared to the traditional system. Transplanting density and plant duration are higher in TP (26±5.6 plants/m2 and 26 days) than in SRI (16±0.4 plants/m2 and 16 days). The lower the transplanting density, the higher the yield parameters and the yield. The economic profitability, determined based on the benefit/cost ratio, is higher in SRI (1.5) than in TP (1.2). The SRI required a lot of technicality in its implementation and generated more cost of production. However, SRI was more productive and economically more profitable than the traditional system.