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Stress is an external event or condition that places a strain on a biological system. The animal response to stress involves the expenditure of energy to remove or reduce the impact of stress. This increases the maintenance requirements of the animal and results in loss of production. The biological response to stress is divided into acute and chronic phases, with the acute phase lasting hours to a few days, and the chronic phase lasting several days to weeks. The acute response is driven by homeostatic regulators of the nervous and endocrine systems and the chronic phase by homeorhetic regulators of the endocrine system. Both responses involve alterations in energy balance and metabolism. The thermal environment affects all animals and therefore represents the largest single stressor in animal production. Other types of stressors include housing conditions, overcrowding, social rank, disease, and toxic compounds. "Acclimation" to stress is a phenotypic response developed by the animal to an individual stressor within the environment. Acclimation is a homeorhetic process that takes several weeks to occur and occurs via homeorhetic, not homeostatic, mechanisms. It is a phenotypic change that disappears when the stress is removed. Milk yield and reproduction are extremely sensitive to stress because of the high energy and protein demands of lactation and the complexity of the reproductive process and multiple organs that are involved. Improvements in the protection of animals against stress require improved education of producers to recognize stress and methods for estimating the degree of stress on animals.

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Islam, M. Z., Khandakar, M. M. H. ., Rashid, M. H.- ur, & Siddiki, M. S. R. . (2020). Stress Response Pathways in Dairy Cattle: A Brief Review. International Science Review, 1(1), 49-53. (Original work published July 26, 2020)

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